Old Dogs

Old dogs don’t die; they can’t. They’ve merely run up ahead; they’re waiting for us just out of sight. Close your eyes late at night and you may smell his musky odor, or perhaps hear his snuffle from the next room. Pay attention and you may feel his nose on your hand or the back of your calf. When your final day comes, you can go on to meet him; he’s never left you and never will, and when you close your eyes for the last time, you’ll open them again to be met with his Bright eyes and wagging tail.

Old dogs don’t die, at least, not those dogs who take the biggest chunks of our hearts with them when they leave us. Those dogs are inextricably part of our souls, and they go with us wherever we are. Though we may not see them, we know they’re there because our heart is still beating; we still breathe, and those of us who have been truly touched by a good dog know our lives really started the day we met them.

Magnificent dogs don’t die. They shepherd our dreams and only allow the good ones through the gates of our consciousness. They watch over us much as they did in life, and that moment when we step just barely outside of death or disaster, it’s because they moved our feet or they stopped short in front of us as they did in life.

You see, a good dog is something only given to a few people. They are a gift from the universe and, though they’re with us only a short time, they never really leave us. They are loyalty and love perfected, and once we are graced with that sort of love we can never lose it. We merely lose sight of it for a time, and that is our fault; for how can love like that ever go away?

It can’t. It can’t, and it never will. For these brave souls trade their hearts for ours, and they beat together beyond sickness, beyond death. They are ours, and we are theirs, for every sunrise and every sunset, until the sun blazes its last and we once again join the stars.

Photo credit: Pete Thorne

Dog Years to Human Years:

 How Do Dog Years Work?

Do you know how old your dog really is?
By: Matt Soniak

If you ask someone how many “human years” are in a “dog year,” the most common answer will probably be seven. It’s not clear how we got stuck on that ratio, or if multiplying a dog’s age by seven actually gives us a truer sense of how old that dog is in the context of our lifespans, but scientists have determined that this method of age calculation isn’t really accurate.

Dog Years to Human Years: Early Research

In the 1950s, French researcher A. Lebeau recognized that converting human years to dog years wasn’t so simple. While dogs do mature and age faster than people do, the relationship between our ages and their ages isn’t constant over time, so just multiplying by seven doesn’t always work.

By looking at dogs’ and humans’ maximum life spans and “life-stage markers,” like puberty, adulthood and old age, Lebeau worked out a system that scientists and veterinarians think is more accurate for determining dog years.

According to Dr. Kathryn McGonigle, clinical associate professor of internal medicine at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, dogs generally reach adulthood within the first two years of their lives and every year after that is equivalent to approximately four human years, not seven.

“Aging is very different across species, and it is absolutely true that dogs and cats age faster [than humans do],” she says. “You may have a pet that goes through his infancy, his preteens and his teens and gets into adulthood by age two.” She calls these first two dog years “the first 15 to 24” human years.

Discovering a Dog Year Calculator

In 1997, a team of veterinarians led by Gary Patronek set out to find an improved method for converting dog years to human years or, as they put it, “chronological ages” to “physiological ages.”

One issue they found with Lebeau’s work was that it didn’t account for breed, body size and weight, which can influence a dog’s lifespan and the rate at which it ages. Large breeds, like Great Danes, tend to age faster relative to small breeds, like Chihuahuas.

Patronek’s team collected data on more than 23,000 pet dogs from veterinary databases to determine the average life span for different sized breeds. Using that, they came up with a formula for converting dog years to human years that’s a bit more complicated than multiplying by seven (and not easy to do off the top of your head).

Below are the calculations the scientists found when they applied the formula to dogs in different weight groups. As you can see, size does matter, and two dogs that are the same age can have very different ages in human years if they’re different sizes:Dog years to human years chart

Why Are Dog Years Important?

Why is knowing your dog’s age in human years important? Well, you wouldn’t treat a teenager the same way as a senior citizen, so calculating your dog’s physiological age as accurately as possible can help you and your veterinarian give them the best care, food and exercise that’s appropriate for their age.

In addition to a dog’s breed and size, environment and diet will impact their aging process, and McGonigle recommends feeding a high-quality diet, maintaining a lean body mass, and providing plenty of exercise and mental stimulation as ways to keep your pet healthy throughout his or her life, particularly into their senior years.

Though there aren’t as many studies on aging in pets as there are on aging in people, McGonigle says that dogs do experience aging changes similarly to humans, including changes to their hearing, vision, mobility and disease processes. Working with your veterinarian throughout your pet’s life, particularly as they age, can help improve your pet’s senior years.

“Pets have an incredible ability to hide their underlying disease processes,” she says. “We rely heavily on the physical exam and labwork findings to let us know if something’s not quite right.”

Once your pet has reached the age of seven, consider twice yearly exams and bloodwork to help diagnose and treat conditions related to age, including cancer, chronic kidney disease and endocrine or hormonal diseases like diabetes, she says.

Chart: via National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health
ource:  Paw Culture

You Have an Aussie

Karla HowellYou have an Aussie.
You have a breed that’s a little over 150 years old.
You have a breed that is the only herding stock dog originally bred in America, and is truly American, being a great big melting pot of different breeds to get what they wanted.
You have a breed that was bred to be able to herd one thousand sheep with a few buddies and only one human shepherd.
You have an Aussie.
You have a breed that was bred for sheep but able to think and adjust to herd ducks, geese, pig, chickens, and rabbits And each one herded differently .
You have a breed that guarded all those sheep, ducks, geese, and rabbits, so it made sure it kept it’s eyes on you.
You have a breed that has guarding instincts as strong as it’s herding instincts.
You have a breed that ranchers loved because if you needed something done, it could do it.
You have an Aussie.
You have a breed that was known as early as 1860 for it’s intelligence, gentleness, loyalty and uncompromising courage and strength in the face of danger.
You have a breed that was bred to have no trouble continually moving with a comfortable lope all day. Every day.
You have a breed that doesn’t care about the weather, and has worked everywhere from Antarctica to the hot dry plains of Texas.
You have an Aussie.
You have a breed that is known for incredible energy and intelligence and also being one of the most destructive dogs there is when those aren’t taken care of.
You have a breed that you thought you knew what it took to raise one, and was still surprised. And still got another one.
You have a breed that has no problem running your home if they don’t think you are doing it right.
You have a breed that made the list of ten most high maintenance dogs. And you weren’t surprised.
You have a breed that you have actively talked people out of getting. And laugh when non aussie owners say they can take care of it for a little while.

You have an Aussie and wouldn’t trade it for the world.

Children With Dogs Are Less Likely to Suffer From Anxiety

Comedian Robert Benchley famously stated, “Every boy should have two things: a dog and a mother who lets him have one.” Of course, this needn’t be restricted to boys, as there’s reason to believe most children — boys and girls alike — may benefit from owning a pet, particularly a dog.

The health benefits of pet ownership for adults are well-established. Dog owners tend to be more physically active than non-owners, for starters. Dogs also act as natural icebreakers, helping to break down walls of social isolation that could otherwise lead to depression and other issues.

There’s even evidence dog ownership may positively influence health conditions like high blood pressure while improving survival rates after a heart attack. With all of these noted benefits, it would seem probable that children, too, would have much to gain from owning a pet, but the research on this is slim.

This prompted researchers from the Bassett Medical Center of Cooperstown, New York to conduct a proper study looking into pets and children’s health, and in particular whether they help with prevention of chronic disease.

Children With Dogs Are Less Likely to Suffer From Anxiety

The study involved 643 children with a mean age of 6.7 years. While no relationship was found between pet ownership and body mass index (BMI, a measure of healthy weight), screen time of two hours or less or physical activity, there was an association with anxiety.

Compared to children without dogs, a lower percentage of children with dogs met the clinical cut-off value of Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Disorders (SCARED-5, a test used to screen for childhood anxiety disorders).

Specifically, only 12 percent of children with dogs suffered from probable anxiety compared to 21 percent of those without.

The study found “pet dog ownership was associated with a 9 percent reduction in the probability of a SCARED-5 score of three or higher,” which is the point at which further assessment is recommended to diagnose anxiety.

How Might Dogs Reduce Childhood Anxiety?

It’s not surprising that having a dog around may help lower children’s risk of anxiety. It’s already known, for instance, that children who take part in animal-assisted therapy (AAT) with dogs experience improvements in mental health and developmental disorders via a reduction in anxiety and enhancing attachment.

Further, dogs are very responsive to human communicative cues, making them uniquely suited to bolster a child’s emerging self-esteem and confidence.

In fact, children aged 7 to 8 rated pets higher than humans when it came to providing a sense of comfort and self-esteem or acting as a confidant, the researchers noted.  As for how dogs might reduce childhood anxiety, it’s likely via multiple mechanisms. According to the featured study:

“Pet dogs could reduce childhood anxiety, particularly social and separation anxiety, by various mechanisms. A pet dog can stimulate conversation, an ice-breaking effect that can alleviate social anxiety via a social catalyst effect.

Companionship with a pet can alleviate separation anxiety and strengthen attachment. Social interaction of humans and dogs may also lead to increased oxytocin levels in both the human and the dog.

Interacting with a friendly dog also reduces cortisol levels most likely through oxytocin release, which attenuates physiologic responses to stress. These hormonal effects may underlie the observed emotional and behavioral benefits of AAT and pet dogs.”

Dogs May Have a Positive Affect on Anxiety From Many Causes

From children needing a boost in self-esteem to those undergoing treatment for cancer, dogs may play a beneficial role.

Researchers from Mount Sinai Beth Israel Hospital in New York found that cancer patients had improved emotional well-being and quality of life when they spent time with a therapy dog during chemotherapy and radiation treatment.

In addition to lowering anxiety and stress levels, patients reported the therapy dogs provided a distraction to the treatment and helped diminish feelings of pain.

Again at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, which has embraced canine therapy since 2007, patients reported lessened anxiety and distress when interacting with the therapy dogs.

Therapy dogs can even be useful for teens facing test anxiety. The Downers Grove Public Library in Illinois brought in pet therapy dogs to assist high school students preparing for final exams.

Universities including Yale, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Connecticut have also used therapy dogs for students cramming for tests.

Therapy Dogs Even Reduce the Need for Anti-Anxiety Drugs

Therapy dogs have also emerged as a promising form of support for people, particularly veterans, with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Although this is more common in adults than children, it still speaks volumes about how beneficial dogs can be for mental health, as the dogs help to restore veterans’ sense of responsibility, optimism and self-awareness.

In fact, caring for a dog may even reduce PTSD sufferers’ need for anti-anxiety medications — so it stands to reason that such an activity could help an anxious child as well.

Because AAT is easier to study than routine pet exposure at home, it remains to be seen — at least scientifically speaking — whether pet dogs have direct effects on children’s mental health.

However, as the featured study noted, “children spend more time with pets at home than they would with AAT animals,” so there’s a good possibility a positive effect would be seen.

Not Ready for a Dog? Guinea Pigs May Help Too

While dogs may seem like the natural choice for providing anxiety relief and companionship to children, they’re not the only pets that can do so. Guinea pigs have also proven to be helpful, including among children with autism, who often have high levels of anxiety and stress (arousal) in social situations.

When children with autism interacted with guinea pigs, their arousal levels declined, even in the midst of a social situation at school. The study suggests the guinea pigs had a calming, stress-lowering effect in children with autism.   You know your child best and can gauge what type of pet may be best for him or her. Even a fish tank can have a calming effect on many people, kids included.

If you’re considering adding a pet to your home and your child is under 5, you can assume that you’ll be doing most of the pet care. Even children under 10 should not be expected to care for a dog or cat completely on their own.

That being said, growing up with a pet can have immeasurable benefits to your child, even beyond anxiety. Past research has shown, for example, that dog ownership is associated with a lower likelihood of overweight and obesity among children aged 5 to 12 years.   It may even help your kids do better in school. There are other benefits, too, as Benchley so eloquently articulated:

A dog teaches a boy fidelity, perseverance, and to turn around three times before lying down.”

By Dr. Becker – Source


7 Rattlesnake Tips that could Save Your Dog’s Life

cruber5094Rattlesnakes live in so many areas, and can be a life-threatening danger to dogs of all sizes. But with just a few preventive steps, you can reduce the chances your dog will get bitten and die from a rattlesnake bite! Rattlesnakes are very common the parks and trails that many dog-lovers use for hikes and walks with their dogs. More and more homes are being built in areas that were previously rural, making encounters with wildlife even more common. If you and your dog live in an apartment in a totally urban (cement city) area and never goes on walks in a park, then you don’t need these tips. But the majority of pet owners would be prudent in following them! Being prepared takes education about avoidance and – most importantly – a trip to the vet. Read on for our tips to prevent a fatal rattlesnake bite, and what to do if your dog is bitten!

1. Get your dog the rattlesnake vaccine.
There is a dog vaccine by Red Rock Biologics for rattlesnake bites. The vaccine is made from snake venom and works in a way so that if your dog is bitten, the reaction to the bite is REDUCED and may be delayed – it is not completely eliminated, so a vaccinated dog bitten by a rattlesnake will still need vet care as soon as possible.  “The rattlesnake vaccination costs about $25, and can greatly reduce the amount of anti-venom serum the dog needs and the severity of the reaction to the bite,” says Dr. Liz Koskenmaki, DVM. Since each vial of anti-venom costs between $500 to $1000 depending on where you live, you are not only potentially saving your dog’s life, but a lot of money!

2. Walk your dog on 6-foot leash.
If you hear a rattle or see a snake on the ground ahead of you, if your dog is on a 6 foot leash, you can avoid it. Vets say the vast majority of rattlesnake bites occur when a dog is off-leash or on a flexi-lead.

3. Avoid rocky or dense brush or grassy areas.
On your walks with your dog, stay on the trail, and choose wide trails or roads over narrow brush-bordered trails if possible. That way you are more likely to see a snake sunning itself across your path, and be able to stop and avoid it in time. Also, keep your yard grass cut short and eliminate brush, piles of rocks where snakes like to sun themselves as well as hide.

4. Snake-proof your yard.
Your yard may be fenced to keep Fido safely in, but it won’t keep most snakes out unless you fortify it. Snakes can get under fencing that does not have a solid cement base (like a block wall). On wood fences or solid iron fences, use hardware cloth all along the base of your fence, including across any gated areas. You’ll need to dig a trench to bury 22″ of it into the ground, with 18″ above ground attached to the base of your fence. Hardware cloth runs about $100 per 100 feet — expensive, but if you live in a rattlesnake-dense area and want your dog to be safe in your yard, the cost may be worth it.

5. Know a dog’s rattlesnake-bite symptoms.
If you don’t recognize the symptoms of a rattlesnake bite in your dog, you might delay rushing them to the vet immediately – and that delay could be fatal.

Immediate symptoms almost always include:

  • puncture wounds (can be bleeding)
  • severe pain
  • swelling
  • restlessness, panting, or drooling

Depending on how much venom the bite injected into your dog, and the size of your dog, any of these more severe symptoms may appear quickly or within a few hours:

  • lethargy, weakness, sometimes collapse
  • muscle tremors
  • diarrhea
  • seizures
  • neurological signs including depressed respiration

6. If you & your dog encounter a rattlesnake…
Calmly & slowly back away from the snake until you are no longer within striking distance (about the snake’s length) and until the snake stops rattling at you. Then carefully leave the area – if there is one snake, there are likely to be more in that same area.

7. If your dog is bitten by a rattlesnake…
If you can, carry your dog to your car. If you can’t carry your dog without them (or you!) struggling, walk them to your car. Limiting the dog’s activity will limit the venom moving around in their body, which is better. THEN GET THEM TO A VET IMMEDIATELY! The faster your dog can get the anti-venom and other emergency treatment from the vet, the greater their chance of survival.

We haven’t included rattlesnake aversion training classes in our tips. In some areas, “Rattlesnake Proofing” or aversion training is available, but be aware that they almost always involve the dog getting a fairly strong shock from an electric shock collar when they “find” a snake (yes, a real snake – a defanged/devenomed one). You lavish them with praise after they get shocked and yelp in pain and encourage them to come running back to you. In extreme cases where your dog must go out into an area with rattlesnakes daily, the one-second of pain of this type of “rattlesnake proofing” might be worth potentially saving your dog’s life, but we hope that with the totally humane tips above, most dog owners will not have to resort to a painful training to keep their dogs safe from a fatal rattlesnake bite.

Reference: Adopt a Pet 

More Information: Prevention and Treatment of Rattlesnake Bites in Dogs

Rattlesnakes live in a variety of habitats, ranging from wetlands, deserts and forests, and from sea level to mountain elevations. Rattlesnakes are most active in warmer seasons, from Spring to Autumn. In southern latitudes (and here in Southern California) they are occasionally found year-round. Dogs are at risk for rattlesnake bites; in fact dogs are about 20 times more likely to be bitten by venomous snakes than people and are about 25 times more likely to die if bitten. Snake bites are life threatening, extremely painful, expensive to treat, and can cause permanent damage even when the dogs survive. Dogs can encounter a rattlesnake anytime they are in rattlesnake habitat. You and your dog may live in rattlesnake habitat, or perhaps you travel through or frequently visit places where rattlesnakes are found. Maybe rattlesnakes are around when you take your dog hiking, camping or hunting. Like people, dogs may stumble over the location of a snake by accident. Curiosity or a protective instinct can place your dog at risk. When dogs encounter snakes during play or work in the snake’s natural habitat, most bites tend to occur on the face or extremities. The rattlesnake bite is generally “hemotoxic” which means that it exerts its toxin by disrupting the integrity of the blood vessels. The swelling is often dramatic with up to 1/3 of the total blood circulation being lost into the tissues in a matter of hours. The toxin further disrupts normal blood clotting mechanisms leading to uncontrolled bleeding. This kind of blood loss induces shock and finally death. Facial bites are often more lethal as the swelling may occlude the throat or impair ability to breathe. Less than a decade ago, a dog unfortunate enough to be bitten by a large Western Diamondback rattlesnake and injected with a full load of venom faced a grim fate, particularly if it was more than a couple of hours away from medical help. Since its availability in 2003, the Red Rock Biologics rattlesnake vaccine has helped provide the best protection against poisonous snakes and has become the standard of preventive veterinary care for dogs at high risk for rattlesnake bites.

The canine rattlesnake vaccine comprises venom components from Crotalus atrox (western diamondback). This vaccine is meant for use in healthy dogs to help decrease the severity of rattlesnake bites. The vaccine is produced from inactivated Crotalus atrox venom with an adjuvant and preservatives added. Dogs develop neutralizing antibody titers to C. atrox venom; the vaccine is specifically for the toxin of the Western Diamondback rattlesnake and provides the best protection against the venom of that particular rattlesnake, however the vaccine has been shown to provide cross protection against the venom of other types of rattlesnakes and copperheads since the venom of pit vipers share some of the same toxic components. In fact, most of the 15 species of rattlesnakes in the United States have fairly similar venom.  This is how one antivenin is able to cross-protect against so many rattlesnake species.  The protection afforded by the vaccine depends on the similarity of snake venoms to the Western Diamondback.

The vaccine however does not provide protection against the Mojave rattlesnake, Eastern Diamondback rattlesnake, cottonmouths or coral snakes.

The vaccine works by stimulating the dog’s immune system to produce antibodies against rattlesnake toxin. Initially, a dog should receive two subcutaneous doses about 30 days apart.  It is best to give vaccination boosters about 30 days before beginning of exposure to rattlesnakes. Protection peaks about 30 to 45 days after boosters and lasts about six months.  As the antibodies are short lived and the vaccine typically only provides protection for six months, a booster shot is necessary either once a year one month before “snake season” or twice a year in areas where rattlesnakes are year-round risks. The protection level that a dog receives from the vaccine depends upon how well that individual dog produces these specific antibodies and may vary. Protective antibodies made by your dog in response to the vaccine start neutralizing venom immediately. On average, antibody levels in recently vaccinated dogs are comparable to treatment with three vials of antivenin. Almost no vaccine is effective 100% of the time.  There are undoubtedly some dogs whose immune systems just won’t produce as many antibodies necessary for maximum protection but the partial protection they receive may still be enough to save their lives or help them recover more quickly. Therefore, this vaccine should not be used solely as a means of protection against rattlesnake bites. It is meant to provide some protection and to reduce the severity of the snakebite.  Adverse events are reported in far less than one percent of all vaccinated dogs.  Most of these side effects are mild and need no veterinary care.  The most common side effect is the development of an injection site cellulitis; these vaccine site reactions can be treated with hot, moist compresses, antibiotics, and pain relief medication if necessary.  Systemic reactions (typically flu like symptoms) are reported in fewer than one in 3,000 vaccinates and usually self-resolve in two to three days.

Even good antibody protection can be overcome in special snakebite circumstances. A vaccinated dog’s resistance to rattlesnake venom can be overcome with enough venom or special circumstances.  But what are those circumstances?  Special snakebite circumstances include smaller dogs, larger snakes, multiple snake bites to the same dog, and bites near vital organs.  Smaller dogs are always going to have a harder time fighting off the same amount of venom as larger dogs.  Larger snakes can produce and deliver larger doses of venom in a single bite.  Multiple snake bites to the same dog can naturally deliver larger quantities of venom.  Bites near vital organs allow the venom to start destroying those organs before the antibodies in the dog’s blood plasma have time to find and neutralize the harmful proteins in the rattlesnake venom.  Other special circumstances may include some dogs whose immune systems just don’t produce enough antibodies, intravenous bites, and some snake species that the vaccine has little or no protection against.

The reported benefits of vaccination include a delay in onset of symptoms, fewer symptoms, less severe symptoms, a decrease in mortality rate, faster recovery times, and little or no tissue necrosis.  In addition, most veterinarians also report less painful dogs, less lethargy, less swelling, that the swelling progression typically reversed within the first 1 to 2 hours, and that dogs had full recoveries in about 24 to 48 hours. As mentioned previously, according to Red Rock Biologics, the manufacturers of the rattlesnake vaccine, the antibody levels in recently vaccinated dogs are comparable to treatment with three vials of antivenin. So, although canines still need emergency veterinary treatment, they should experience less pain and a reduced risk of permanent injury from the rattlesnake bite. Snakebites are always an emergency. Even if your dog is vaccinated against rattlesnake venom, always get the pet to a veterinarian as soon as possible following any snakebite. Even non-venomous snake bites can lead to serious infections and antibiotic treatment may be needed. A veterinarian can determine what additional treatment is needed.

Since the most common mechanism of death from rattlesnake bite is circulatory collapse, intravenous fluid support, antibiotic therapy, cardiac and blood pressure monitoring, antihistamine administration and pain management are very important.  Fluids may be started at a relatively slow rate if the patient is stable but should signs of impending trouble occur, circulatory volume replacement and treatment for shock is indicated. Blood transfusion may be necessary if life-threatening blood loss has occurred. A minimum of twenty four hours of post-bite observation and hospitalization is prudent. In addition, treatment of snakebite should include antivenin administration. There are numerous misconceptions about antivenin. The first is simply the name of the product. It is not “anti-venom.” It is not a single injection that provides the antidote to snake bite venom. Antivenin is a biological product consisting of antibodies made in response to exposure to four common Crotaline venoms. The antibody serum is reconstituted into an intravenous drip that is run into the patient over at least 30 minutes or so. Antivenin is expensive (at least $600-$800 per vial) and a large dog with a severe bite is likely to require several vials. Antivenin is very helpful in the inactivation of snake venom but there is a narrow window during which it must be used. After about 4 hours post-bite, antivenin is less effective in countering the effects of snake venom.

In summary, rattlesnake envenomation is a serious life threatening injury and immediate veterinary care is warranted for the best success rates in surviving the ordeal. The benefits of prophylactic vaccination include more time to get to a veterinary hospital, the reduction in the amount of pain and swelling experienced, faster recovery times, and a decrease in the mortality rate. It is not meant as a sole means of protection. Emergency treatment consisting of intravenous fluid support, antibiotic administration, antihistamines, pain management and antivenin will result in the best chance of successfully surviving a rattlesnake bite.

Reference:  Animal Medical Center of California

October Newsletter

Tips for a Safe, Not Scary Halloween for Pets

10325182_10204150914126178_1500083433142702819_nHalloween is a fun time for humans, but not always for our pets. As you gear up for the holiday, keep these safety tips in mind to ensure your pet has a dog gone great Halloween.

Be careful with costumes. If you dress up your pet, the costume should not constrict their movement, hearing or sight, or impede their ability to breathe, bark or meow. It may be helpful to try on the costume before the big night – if your pet seems distressed or shows abnormal behavior, don’t bother. Also, check for any small, dangling or easily chewed-off pieces they could choke on.

Beware of potentially harmful make-up or face paint. Paints can irritate your pet’s skin, or may be ingested. Even make-up that is non-toxic can cause stomachaches or worse.

10603543_10204151003448411_2396055587007510329_nCandy bags are strictly for the kids. Chocolate in all forms, especially dark or baking chocolate can be very dangerous for dogs and cats. Give your pooch their own Halloween treat in the form of their favorite doggy snack. If you suspect your pet has ingested something toxic, call your veterinarian or poison control center.

Keep an eye out for edible decorations. Items like pumpkins and candy corn are often used for decorating, and while they are considered to be relatively nontoxic, they can cause upset stomachs for pets that nibble on them.

Keep Fido at home while you trick-or-treat. It’s possible your dog could get spooked by a ghost or goblin and a dog bite or fight could occur.